This rhythm is articulated by a pattern of snare accents on the 1, the “and” after 2, and the 4, as shown in figure 8: Figure 8. The above figure displays the durations of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh eighth notes in measure 15. User 239585079. wanna team. We are a musical family comprised of true friends and families that understand music, culture and performance both in the style of New Orleans and internationally as well. We can see that the durations of each eighth note remain fairly consistent between the two measures (the 4.2 cm duration of the first eighth note in measure 1 is very close to the 4.15 cm duration of the first eighth note in measure 2, for instance) but that, within each measure, the durations of the “long” and “short” eighth notes fluctuate somewhat. Check out New Orleans Second Line by Judy Bailey & Jazz Connection on Amazon Music. Our approach is not routine or lacking in individuality. In both measures, the long eighth notes averaged 4.25 cm, while the short eighth notes averaged 2.9125 cm. Whereas in early New Orleans jazz this beat lay at the end of a one- or two-bar phrase and was known as the “Big Four,” in New Orleans R&B of the 1950s and 1960s the strong beat lay at the beginning of each measure. Second line parades stem from New Orleans’ iconic jazz funerals. While the first measure of these two grooves is essentially identical, the piano and guitar diverge in the second measure, playing accents off of one another and creating something of a “call-and-response” effect. Due in part to their widespread influence, second line rhythms are a foundational component of many international jazz and popular music styles today. Stewart, Alexander. Since these features underlie so much American and global popular music, it is clear that a notational system that can better describe them must be devised. Since the 1960s, when James Brown essentially invented funk music by building on rhythms introduced to him by two New Orleans-schooled drummers, the relationship between “second line” and “funk” rhythms has been increasingly symbiotic. Basic guitar groove, “Hey Pocky A-Way.” Transcribed by author. Martinez, Maurice. It is the tension between the straight fourths of the tambourine and the uneven eighth-note subdivisions characterizing the other instrumental lines that make this performance a classic example of second line rhythm. Note that the piano also accents the One throughout. Features of West and Central African culture survived to a greater degree in New Orleans than in other parts of the United States in part because of the city’s distinct political situation. “‘Funky Drummer’: New Orleans, James Brown and the Rhythmic Transformation of American Popular Music.”. Bamboula rhythm. 1993. Without these alternating strong and weak accents, all we have is a flat pattern of half-swung eighth notes. Through this analysis I hope to have demonstrated a few of the different ways in which features of second line rhythm are utilized in different genres of New Orleans music. |, It would not be outrageous to claim that the musical traditions of New Orleans were the wellspring of twentieth-century popular music. I found that, indeed, there was a consistent pattern of alternating long and short eighth notes, though the proportions were not especially consistent. Where Stewart’s and Payne’s analyses typically focus on one instrument at a time, however, my intention herein is to illustrate the interaction of multiple instruments within a piece and the ways they articulate elements of second line rhythm both together and individually. Transcribed by author. Hinton, James and Maurice Martinez. As with “The 2nd Line,” I undertook a spectrographic analysis of the song’s waveform to measure the uneven eighth-note durations that give “Hey Pocky A-Way” its “between the cracks” feel. Perhaps the figures I have provided in each of my analyses, which illustrate the durations of each eighth note as accurately as was possible for my study, could serve as a starting point for a new notational model that indicates duration spatially. Come explore what Cincinnati has to offer! shane fish I'm on ya ass now! Accurate show listings, local band profiles, music news, and more. The group on the recording consists of Wynton Marsalis on trumpet, Branford Marsalis on saxophone, Delfeayo Marsalis on trombone, Ellis Marsalis, Jr. on piano, Eric Revis on bass, and Jason Marsalis on drums. Sublette notes that Schultz aptly recognized a spiritual undercurrent in the dance and music of Congo Square; most probably, black New Orleanians were using drums and dance to commune with the spirits as their West African forebears had done (2008:282). As a result, I chose to analyze the horn line, which is far more prominent and visible on the graph. 2011. This mural, titled “The Third Line,” is 150-foot-long, 35-foot-tall homage to second line culture. The bamboula and the clave are both crucial building blocks of second line rhythms. In fact, the bass drum is so closely locked in with the string bass that it is often hard to tell them apart. Most of the development is rhythmic rather than harmonic/melodic, with each of the instruments interlocking in a composite rhythmic pattern. The second, “Hey Pocky-a-Way,” is an original song, based on an old Mardi Gras Indian chant, by “second line funk” group the Meters. We lead our second line parades with the iconic sounds of New Orleans brass band music. Still, the durational fluctuations between each long eighth note and between each short eighth note are less extreme here than in “The 2. The song’s basic guitar and piano grooves are illustrated in figures 9 and 10: Figure 9. My aim is to demonstrate both how second line rhythms serve as a common thread connecting these styles and how the different variations of second line rhythm set these styles apart. We also offer New Orleans Jazz ensemble style and classic favorites too. This highly percussive style, centered as much around the rhythm and accent patterns of the guitar strum as it is on the tones of the chord being played, is the song’s most overt nod to the funk genre. I should note that while I was transcribing the song, I tried to separate these two elements to the fullest extent that I could, but due to their close synchronization and occasional inaudibility on the recording, the resultant transcription is more of an approximation of their different roles than an exact record. Visitors experience a city’s culture on the walls of museums and galleries, on the stages of theaters and musical halls and even on the plates of local restaurants. 1966. Jelly Roll Morton in 1917–1918 Early New Orleans jazz bands had habaneras in their repertoire and the tresillo/habanera figure was a rhythmic staple of jazz at the turn of the 20th century. The “between the cracks” feel of “Hey Pocky A-Way” is established most clearly by the drums, which play two solo measures at the beginning of the song. Download our mobile app now. As big-band swing evolved into jump blues, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll, shuffle rhythms began to decline in popularity and were largely replaced by a straight-eighths pulse (Stewart:297). New York: W.W. Norton. For the recessional, the band strikes up with the upbeat, “second-line” music, celebrating The Second Line is a tradition in parades organized by Social, Aid and Pleasure Clubs (SAPCs) with brass band parades in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. After the clarion call and audience response of the first four bars in my transcription, the basic 12-bar form begins on bar 5. Though accent patterns in funk music almost always emphasize off-beats or in-between beats (the “ands” between 1-2-3-4), it is the One which holds the entire rhythmic structure together. Turner, Richard Brent. Over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, black musicians in New Orleans developed a unique rhythmic syntax which underlies Crescent City jazz, rhythm and blues, and funk music. Individual articles are the copyright of their authors. A jazz band accompanies the procession to celebrate the life of the deceased. keeping up-to-date with trends while still holding on to tradition. Eighth-note beat durations, “Hey Pocky A-Way” measures 1 and 2. Transcribed by the author. We cater to diverse audiences from around the globe and can play many cultural folk tunes. The World That Made New Orleans: From Spanish Silver to Congo Square. Cuban son clave rhythm. In the following analysis, I detail how the group’s use of key second line rhythmic principles—in particular their deployment of additive Afro-Caribbean 3-3-2 rhythms and a “between the cracks” feel—is shaped by the stylistic framework of the funk genre. A native of New Hampshire, Ben Doleac received his Master's degree in Ethnomusicology from the University of Alberta in 2011 and is currently pursuing a PhD in the same field at the University of California, Los Angeles. The Band assisted with the necessary City Permits and Escorts, which save us a lot of time and headache. The limited freedoms granted to free and enslaved blacks during this time period would allow them to develop a relatively autonomous community and preserve ancestral traditions more effectively than anywhere else in colonial America. Foremost among New Orleans funk bands were the Meters, who had links to nearly all of funk’s pioneering figures in New Orleans. Jasmine Green. The original second lines raised awareness, helping freed slaves receive help, advertising services, and mourning the losses of notable community members. It was in this context that jazz first began to take shape, with Storyville trumpeter Buddy Bolden credited both by historians and many early players as its first true practitioner. “The 2nd Line.” From Music Redeems. The vertical line in the middle of the figure indicates the bar division. VHS. Ned Sublette writes that while slavery was brutal and inhumane in Spanish New Orleans as elsewhere, “the slave was treated more as a human being, albeit an enslaved one” there than in the French and British colonies (2008:97). Earl King, "Street Parade" You may know blues guitarist King from his 1962 hit "Trick Bag," or from … CD. We lead our second line parades with the iconic sounds of New Orleans brass band music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Traditionally, Second Lines formed organically and without planning whenever a procession took place. Kwabena. By the 1780s several support societies (later known as “Social Aid and Pleasure Clubs”) had emerged among the city’s African-descended residents. The guitar, horns, and other instruments in the ensemble may regularly accent the One beat as well. Although tresillo literally means “triplet,” in practice it refers to the pattern of beats with a duration of 3-3-2 (in 4/4, two dotted quarter notes followed by a regular quarter note). Instead of discouraging creative expression among slaves, however, the new slave codes ultimately brought “Congo Square music” to international attention. In measures 8 and 14, the “Big Four” is anticipated and further emphasized by the “and-3” of the bass drum and the string bass. 11 tracks (48:29). . Wedding Second-line Frequently Ask Questions / Answers. This pattern and other 3-3-2 patterns are examples of what African music scholar J.H. Our management team is creative and has experience working closely with clients throughout the planning process to make sure we are continuously in line with client expectations. Lafayette: University of Louisiana at Lafayette Press. The section of the performance that I have transcribed ends shortly before the entrance of a second piano line, so only one piano part is indicated on the staff. Play second line music Sign up→. The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950–1999. Due in part to their widespread influence, second line rhythms are a foundational component of many international jazz and popular music styles today. Our approach is not routine or lacking in individuality. Advocate photo by SOPHIA GERMER -- Jackson Silvers, 11, dances with the jazz funeral/second line honoring Allen Toussaint at the 2016 New Orleans Jazz Fest. Many couples opt to add a grand marshal, an energetic local who heads the parade. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.com. Kwabena Nketia calls “additive rhythm” (1974). He is presently conducting research on drumming traditions and contemporary brass band music in New Orleans. While the Congo Square dances and black mutual-aid societies of the early nineteenth century provided the basic rhythmic, social, and spiritual framework for the later emergence of the second line parade, its instrumentation was adapted from the European-style brass marching bands that were popular across the country during the same era. This sort of durational flexibility is an essential component of both second line rhythm and the principles of jazz timing that developed out of it. “Some people call it funk,” Millon replied, “but to us it’s strictly second line.” “Funk” has several different meanings in American popular discourse, but since the 1970s it has largely connoted a heavily syncopated, groove-centered style of African-American music. One feature common to all of the African social aid societies was the processional form later known as the second line. Ethnomusicology Review Line,” the basic pattern is alternating long and short eighth notes. When repeated regularly, additive rhythms often function as a “time line,” a common organizing feature of Afro-diasporic musics that Richard J. Ripani defines as “a short rhythmic pattern that serves as a reference rhythm for the entire ensemble” (2006:50). This caused me some confusion in my own transcriptions, as I initially heard the rhythm of both “The 2nd Line” and “Hey Pocky A-Way” as triplet shuffles. “Hey Pocky A-Way.” From, Moore, Stanton. Our management team is creative and has experience working closely with clients throughout the planning process to make sure we are. Numerous scholars, including Richard Brent Turner (2009); Charles Hersch (2007); and Berry, Foose, and Jones (1986) have traced the origins of the second line to the performative traditions of West African and Caribbean festival culture. In “The 2nd Line,” the ambiguity of the “between the cracks” feel was offset somewhat by the duple (1-2, 1-2) march time feel of the ride-bell and tambourine pattern, but there is no such stabilizing framework here. This interplay between the steady 1-3 march of the bass drum and the syncopated accents of the snare is a central characteristic of second line drumming. Derived from West African festival culture, such performances were to prove formative to black New Orleans culture in their blending of the sacred and secular, their incorporation of “African dance, dress, song, music, and instrumentation,” and their frequent use of processions and masquerades (Walker 2004:4). The Black Indians of New Orleans. My analyses herein represent just a preliminary step in that direction; there are countless other instances across jazz and popular music genres where additive rhythms and a “between the cracks” rhythmic feel are deployed in different ways. 1974. Another crucial feature of New Orleans second line rhythm and the jazz and funk traditions that sprung from it is the use of unequal or “swung” eighth notes. Jasmine Green. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. (1994:27). New Orleans Second Lines. Our professional musicians and performance artists are skilled, seasoned and among the best in the industry and know how to communicate as one - musically - and as artists. Additive rhythms are also somewhat awkwardly represented using traditional Western notation, with bar lines and note ties sometimes dividing beat cycles in an unnatural fashion. Mardi Gras Indians. Note that both the first beat (“The One”) and the fourth (the “Big Four”) are emphasized here, although the particularly weak final eighth note has the effect of giving greater weight to the One, which immediately follows it. Unlike in either of these styles, however, the march feel is not consistently articulated by the combination of the bass and the snare. With the snare playing a displaced clave, it falls to the ride cymbal to establish the 2 and 4 of the march beat throughout. In this essay I hope to expand on the work of Stewart, Payne, and other scholars through a historical and musicological exploration of the relationship between second line rhythms and funk, as well as a comparison of the usage of second line rhythms in contemporary jazz and funk contexts. The syncopations of the bass and the snare drum in “The 2nd Line” serve to further emphasize both the strong beats and the various manifestations of Afro-Cuban style rhythms. Congo Square: African Roots in New Orleans. The music was fun and lively and gave the Wedding Guests a traditional New Orleans experience. 1993. On the weekends, they were often allowed to come and go from the plantations as they pleased, and many would gather in Congo Square (then know as the Place des Nègres) with drums, banjos, violins and other instruments to perform traditional African music and dances. A further development that had a substantial impact on the city’s black musicians was the creation of the red-light Storyville district in 1887. You don’t have to be dead and/or famous to get a second line parade. “Some people call it funk,” notes Big Chief Jake Millon in James Hinton and Maurice Martinez’s 1976 documentary The Black Indians of New Orleans, “but to us it’s strictly second line.” Taking its name from the black street parading tradition in which it was developed, second line rhythm has spread around the world through the music of jazz pioneer Louis Armstrong and “Godfather of Soul” James Brown, among others. Each accented snare beat is doubled by the bass drum. I undertook a spectrographic analysis of the recording’s wave form for just this purpose. in line with client expectations. 2001. This turned out to be the case both on “The 2nd Line” and on “Hey Pocky A-Way,” although the pattern broke down somewhat more neatly on the latter tune. Lichtenstein, Grace and Laura Danker. Until measure 16—where an around-the-kit roll and several dropped accents signal the end of the opening section—the bass drum hits beats 1 and 3 consistently, as would be expected in a standard march beat. Transcribed by author. After using the “scissors” tool in my recording program to make a cut at each point where one note changed to the next, I measured the distances between split points using a ruler. Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for New Orleans Second Line! The city’s music has been most profoundly influential in its approach to rhythm. But in New Orleans, culture also comes bubbling up from the streets and one of the most unique local expressions of this sort of culture is the second line parade. Some things, like acquiring police escort or a permit from the City of New Orleans, are not optional. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.com. Jackson: The University of Mississippi Press. Instead, it can only be learned through listening and actual practice. Unlike in brass bands, there are two chordophones (the pianos), and a string bass is used in place of the sousaphone. Los Angeles, CA 90095-1657 Basic piano groove, “Hey Pocky A-Way.” Transcribed by author. Marsalis Family. In its primary sense, “second line” refers to an African-American processional form codified in New Orleans in the late 1800s. After some deliberation, I opted to follow this procedure in both of my transcriptions (see below for a more detailed explanation of how I determined the degree of this “between the cracks” swing). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. UCLA. SIGN IN. Reprise MS 2200. The Second Line's style of traditional dance, in which participants dance and walk along w… Foremost is the challenge of capturing the “between the cracks” feel of second line drumming, which is somewhere between shuffle (eighth- or sixteenth-note triplets) and “straight” rhythms. brezzy. Stewart, Alexander. The Second Line consists of people who follow the band to enjoy the music, dance, and engage in "community." Drummers Charles Connor and Clayton Fillyau were two of the many musicians schooled in the mixed feel of second line and New Orleans R&B rhythms. Marsalis Music 4600130. As the social climate and music scene became more hostile to blacks, the black fraternal organizations first established at the end of the previous century went underground. 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